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Islands, Mounds and Atoms
Patterns and Processes in Crystal Growth Far from Equilibrium

Thomas Michely

Joachim Krug


Crystal growth far from thermodynamic equilibrium is nothing but homoepitaxy - thin film growth on a crystalline substrate of the same material. Because of the absence of misfit effects, homoepitaxy is an ideal playground to study growth kinetics in its pure form. Despite its conceptual simplicity, homoepitaxy gives rise to a wide range of patterns. This book explains the formation of such patterns in terms of elementary atomic processes, using the well-studied Pt/Pt(111) system as a reference point and a large number of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy images for visualization. Topics include surface diffusion, nucleation theory, island shapes, mound formation and coarsening, and layer-by-layer growth. A separate chapter is dedicated to describing the main experimental and theoretical methods. The text is aimed at physicists with an interest in growth kinetics, surface scientists, graduate students, and practitioners of thin film deposition.


2004. XVIII, 313 p. 134 illus. Including a Foldout Color Plate.

(Springer Series in Surface Sciences, Volume 42)

Hardcover. EUR 99.95; £ 77.00; sFr 166.-

ISBN 3-540-40728-6




Scientific Publications



  • Ulrike A. Schröder, Marin Petrovic, Timm Gerber, Antonio J Martinez-Galera, Elin Granäs, Mohammad A Arman, Chralotte Herbig, Joachim Schnadt, Marko Kralj, Jan Knudsen and Thomas Michely
    Core level shifts of intercalated graphene
    , 4, 1, 1-10, (2017)


  • A.J. Martinez-Galera, U.A. Schröder, F. Huttmann, W. Jolie, F. Craes, C. Busse, V. Caciuc, N. Atoderisei, S. Blügel and T. Michely
    Oxygen orders differently under graphene: new superstructures on Ir(111)
    , 8, 1932-1943, (2016)
  • E. Granäs, T. Gerber U.A. Schröder, K. Schulte, J.N. Andersen, T. Michely and J. Knudsen
    Hydrogenintercalation under graphene on Ir(111)
    Surf. Sci., 651, 57-61, (2016)
  • C. Herbig and T. Michely
    Graphene: the ultimately thin sputtering shield
    , 3, 025032, (2016)
  • M. Engler and T. Michely
    Amorphous to crystalline phase transition: Onset of pattern formation during ion erosion of Si (001)
    Phys. Rev. B, 93, 085423, (2016)
  • U.A. Schröder, E. Granas, T. Gerber, M.A. Arman, A.J. Martinez-Galera, , K. Schulte, J.N. Andersen, J. Knudsen and T. Michely
    Etching of graphene on Ir(111)with molecular oxygen
    , 96, 320, 320-331, (2016)
  • D. Franz, N. Blanc, J. Coraux, G. Renaud, S. Runte, T. Gerber, C. Busse, T. Michely, P.J. Feibelman, U. Hejral and A. Stierle
    Atomic structure of Pt nanoclusters supported by graphene/Ir(111) and reversible transormation under CO exposure
    Phys. Rev. B, 93, 045426, 1-8, (2016)


  • F. Huttmann, A.J. Martinez-Galera, S. Caciuc, N. Atorderisei, S. Blügel and T. Michely
    Tuning the van der Waals interaction of graphene with molecules via doping
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 236101, 1-8, (2015)
  • C. Herbig, E.H. Algren, U.A. Schröder, A.J. Martinez-Galera, M.A. Arman, J. Kotakoski, J. Knudsen, A.V. Krasheninnikov and T. Michely
    Xe irradiation of graphene on Ir(111): From trapping to blistering
    Phys. Rev. B, 92, 085429, (2015)
  • Charlotte Herbig, E. Harriet Ahlgren, Wouter Jolie, Carsten Busse, Jani Kotakoski, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov and Thomas Michely
    Comment on Interfacial Caron Nanoplatelet Formation by Ion Irradiation of Graphene on Iridium (111)
    ACS Nano, 9, 5, 4664-4665, (2015)


  • Stefan Schumacher, Felix Huttmann, Marin Petrovic, Christian Witt, Daniel F. Förster, Chi Vo-Van, Johann Coraux, Antonio J. Martinez-Galera, Violetta Sessi, Ignacio Vergara, Reinhard Rückamp, Markus Grüninger, Nicolas Schleheck, Frank Meyer zu Heringdorf, Philippe Ohresser, Marko Kralj, Tim O. Wehling and Thomas Michely
    Europium underneath graphene on Ir(111): Intercalation mechanism, magnetism, and band structure
    Phys. Rev. B, 90, 235437, (2014). arXiv:1409.4272
  • Charlotte Herbig, E. Harriet Ahlgren, Wouter Jolie, Carsten Busse, Jani Kotakoski and Arkady V. Krasheninnikov und Thomas Michely
    Interfacial Carbon Nanoplatelet Formation by Ion Irradiation of Graphene on Iridium (111)
    ACS Nano, 8, 12, 12208-12218, (2014)
  • S. Standop, T. Michely and C. Busse
    H2O on Graphene/Ir(111): A Periodic Array of Frozen Droplets
    J. Phys. Chem. C, 119, 1418-1423, (2014)
  • Martin Engler, Sven Macko, Frank Frost and Thomas Michely
    Evolution of ion beam induced patterns on Si(001)
    Phys. Rev. B, 89, 245412, 1-14, (2014)
  • Wouter Jolie, Fabian Craes, Marin Petrovic, Nicolae Atodiresei, Vasile Caciuc, Stefan Blügel, Marko Kralj, Thomas Michely and Carsten Busse
    Confinement of Dirac electrons in graphene quantum dots
    Phys. Rev. B, 89, 1554351-6, (2014)
  • Stefan Schumacher, Daniel F. Förster, Feiming Hu, Thomas Frauenheim, Tim O. Wehling and Thomas Michely
    Polar EuO(111) on Ir(111): A two-dimensional oxide
    Phys. Rev. B, 89, 115410, 1-13, (2014)
  • Martin Engler, Frank Frost, Sven Müller, Sven Macko, Moritz Will, René Feder, Daniel Spemann, René Hübner, Stefan Facsko and Thomas Michely
    Silicide induced ion beam patterning of Si(001)
    Nanotechnology, 25, 115303, 1-18, (2014)
  • Jürgen Klinkhammer, Martin Schlipf, Fabian Craes, Sven Runte, Thomas Michely and Carsten Busse
    Spin-Polarized Surface State in EuO(100)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 016803, 1-5, (2014)


  • M. Petrovic, I. Srut Rakic, S.Runte, C. Busse, J.T. Sadowski, P. Lazic, I. Pletikosic, Z.-H. Pan, M. Milun, P. Pervan, N. Atodiresei, R. brako, D. Sokcevic, T. Valla, T. Michely and M. Kralj
    The mechanism of caesium intercalation of graphene
    Nat. Commun., 1-8, (2013)
  • Stefan Schumacher, Tim O. Wehling, Predrag Lazic, Sven Runte, Daniel F. Förster , Carsten Busse, Marin Petrovic, Marko Kralj, Stefan Blügel, Nicolae Atodiresei, Vasile Caciuc and Thomas Michely
    The Backside of Graphene: Manipulating Adsorption by Intercalation
    Nano Lett., 13, 5013-5019, (2013)
  • Fabian Craes, Sven Runte, Jürgen Klinkhammer, Marko Kralj, Thomas Michely and Carsten Busse
    Mapping Image Potential States on Graphene Quantum Dots
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 111, 056804, 1-5, (2013)
  • D. Franz, R. Runte, C. Busse, S. Schumacher, T. Gerber, T. Michely, M. Mantilla, V. Kilic, J. Zegenhagen and A. Stierle
    Atomic structure and crystalline order of graphene supported Ir nanoparticle lattices
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 065503, 1-5, (2013)
  • S. Schumacher, D.F. Förster, M. Rösner, T.O. Wehling and T. Michely
    Strain in epitaxial graphene visualized by intercalation
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 086111, 1-5, (2013)
  • T. Gerber, J. Knudsen, P.J. Feibelman, E. Granäs, P. Stratmann, K. Schulte, J. N. Andersen and T. Michely
    CO-induced Smoluchowski ripening of Pt cluster arrays on the graphene/Ir(111) moiré
    ACS Nano, 7, 2020-2031, (2013)
  • S. Standop, O. Lehtinen, C. Herbig, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, F.Craes, J. Kotakoski, T. Michely, A.V. Krasheninnikov and C. Busse
    Ion impacts on graphene/Ir(111): interface channeling, vacancy funnels, and a nanomesh
    Nano Lett., 13, 1948-1955, (2013)
  • Jürgen Klinkhammer, Daniel F.Förster, Stefan Schumacher, Hans P. Oepen, Thomas Michely and Carsten Busse
    Structure and magnetic properties of ultra thin textured EuO films on graphene
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 103, 131601, 1-5, (2013)
  • Elin Granäs, Mie Andersen, Mohammad A. Arman, Timm Gerber, Björk HAmmer, Joachim Schnadt, Jesper N. Andersen , Thomas Michely and Jan Knudsen
    CO Intercalation of Graphene on Ir(111) in the Millibar Regime
    J. Phys. Chem. C, 117, 16438-16447, (2013)


  • D. Subramaniam, F. Libisch, C. Pauly, V. Geringer, R. Reiter, T. Mashoff, M. Liebmann, J. Burgdörfer, C. Busse, T. Michely, M. Pratzer and M. Morgenstern
    Wave function mapping in graphene quantum dots
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, 046801, (2012)
  • H. Hattab, A. T. N'Diaye, D. Wall, C. Klein, G. Jnawali, J. Coraux, C. Busse, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema, T. Michely, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf and M. Horn-von Hoegen
    Interplay of wrinkles, strain, and lattice parameter in graphene layers on iridium
    Nano Lett., 12, 678, (2012)
  • S. Standop, M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and C. Busse
    H2O on Pt(111): Structure and stability of the first wetting layer
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 24, 124103, (2012)
  • C. Herbig, M. Kaiser, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, S. Schumacher, D. F. Förster, K. Meerholz, T. Michely and C. Busse
    Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalation
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 24, 314208, (2012)
  • J. Knudsen, P.J. Feibelman, T. Gerber, E. Granäs, Karina Schulte, Patrick Stratmann, Jesper N. Andersen and T. Michely
    How clusters bind to the graphene moiré on Ir(111) - XPS compared to DFT
    Phys. Rev. B, 035407, 1-6, (2012)
  • D.F. Förster, T.O. Wehling, S. Schumacher, A. Rosch and T. Michely
    Phase coexistence of clusters and islands: Europium on graphene
    New J. Phys., 14, 023022, 1-26, (2012)
  • D.F. Förster, J. Klinkhammer and T. Michely
    Eu oxides on Ni(100): Polar surfaces, magic clusters and structures with large lattice dilation
    Surf. Sci., 606, 1019-1028, (2012)
  • S. Macko, J. Grenzer, F.Frost, M. Engler, D. Hirsch, M. Fritzsche, A. Mücklich and T. Michely
    Iron assisted ion beam patterning of Si(001) in the crystalline regime
    New J. Phys., 14, 073003, 1-16, (2012)
  • E. Granäs, J. Knudsen, U.A. Schröder, T. Gerber, C. Busse, M.A. Arman, K. Schulte, J.N. Andersen and T. Michely
    Oxygen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111): Energetics, kinetics, and the role of graphene edges
    ACS Nano, 6, 9951-9963, (2012)
  • E. Vivo, M. Nicoli, M. Engler, T. Michely, L. Vázquez and R. Cuerno
    Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: analysis and experiments
    Phys. Rev. B, 86, 245427, 1-8, (2012)


  • H. Hattab, A. T. N'Diaye, D. Wall, G. Jnawali, J. Coraux, C. Busse, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema, T. Michely, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf and M. Horn-von Hoegen
    Growth temperature dependent graphene alignement on Ir(111)
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 141903, 141903, (2011)
  • C. Busse, P. Lazic, R. Djemour, J. Coraux, T. Gerber, N. Atodiresei, V. Caciuc, R. Brako, A. T. N'Diaye, S. Blügel, J. Zegenhagen and T. Michely
    Graphene on Ir(111): Physisorption with chemical modulation
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 107, 036101, 1-4, (2011)
  • T. Langer, D. F. Förster, C. Busse, T. Michely, H. Pfnür and C. Tegenkamp
    Sheet plasmons in modulated graphene on Ir(111)
    New J. Phys., 13, 053006, (2011)
  • D. F. Förster, J. Klinkhammer, C. Busse, S. G. Altendorf, T. Michely, Z. Hu, Y.-Y. Chi, L. H. Tjeng, J. Coraux and D. Bourgault
    Epitaxial europium oxide on Ni(100) with single-crystal quality
    Phys. Rev. B, 83, 045424, 1-8, (2011)
  • M. Kralj, I. Pletikosić, M. Petrović, P. Pervan, M. Milun, A. T. N’Diaye, C. Busse, T. Michely, J. Fujii and I. Vobornik
    Graphene on Ir(111) characterized by angle-resolved photoemission
    Phys. Rev. B, 84, 075427, 1-8, (2011)
  • S. Bleikamp, J. Coraux, O. Robach, G. Renaud and T. Michely
    Twins and their boundaries during homoepitaxy on Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 83, 064103, 1-10, (2011)
  • C. Vo-Van, S.Schumacher, J. Coraux, V. Sessi, O. Fruchart, N.B. Brookes, P. Ohresser and T. Michely
    Magnetism of cobalt nanoclusters on graphene on iridium
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 142504, 1-3, (2011)
  • A. Redinger, S. Standop, Y. Rosandi, H.M. Urbassek and T. Michely
    Making channelling visible: keV noble gas ion trails on Pt(111)
    New J. Phys., 13, 013002, 1-27, (2011)
  • S. Macko, F. Frost, M. Engler, D. Hirsch, T. Höche, J. Grenzer and T. Michely
    Phenomenology of iron assisted ion beam pattern formation on Si(001)
    New J. Phys., 13, 073017, 1-19, (2011)



  • A. Redinger, Y. Rosandi, H. M. Urbassek and T. Michely
    Grazing incidence ion erosion in the presence of adsorbates
    New J. Phys., 11, 063011, 1-17, (2009)
  • Y. Rosandi, A. Redinger, T. Michely and H. M. Urbassek
    Competition of terrace and step-edge sputtering under oblique-incidence ion impact on a stepped Pt(111) surface
    NIMB, B, 267, 2769-2773, (2009)
  • H. Hansen, A. Redinger, S. Messlinger, G. Stoian, J. Krug and T. Michely
    Rapid coarsening of ion beam ripple patterns by defect annihilation
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 146103, (2009)
  • Y. Rosandi, A. Redinger, T. Michely and H. M. Urbassek
    Influence of a single adatom on sputtering at grazing incidence - A molecular-dynamics case study of 5 keV Ar impact on Pt(111)
    Surf. Sci., 603, 320-325, (2009)
  • I. Pletikosić, M. Kralj, P. Pervan, R. Brako, J. Coraux, A. T. N’Diaye C. Busse and T. Michly
    Dirac cones and mini gaps for C/Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 056808, 1-4, (2009) [PDF, 1365 kB]
  • J. Coraux, A. T. N'Diaye, M. Engler, C. Busse, D. Wall, N. Buckanie, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema and T. Michely
    Growth of graphene on Ir(111)
    New J. Phys., 11, 023006, 1-22, (2009)
  • A. Picolin, C. Busse, A. Redinger, M. Morgenstern and T. Michely
    Desorption of H2O from Flat and Stepped Pt(111)
    J. Phys. Chem. C, 113, 691-697, (2009) [PDF, 613 kB]
  • R. van Gastel, A. T. N'Diaye, D. Wall J. Coraux, C. Busse, N. M. Buckanie, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. Michely and B. Poelsema
    Selecting a single orientation for millimeter sized graphene sheets
    J. Appl. Phys., 11, 121901, 1-3, (2009)
  • A. T. N'Diaye, R. van Gastel, A. J. Martinez-Galera, J. Coraux, H. Hattab, D. Wall F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, M. Horn-von Hoegen, J. M. Gomez-Rodriguez, B. Poelsema, C. Busse and T. Michely
    In situ observation of stress relaxation in graphene
    New J. Phys., 11, 113056, 1-14, (2009) [PDF, 350 kB]
  • A. T. N'Diaye, T. Gerber, C. Busse, J. Mysliveček, J. Coraux and T. Michely
    A versatile fabrication method for cluster superlattices
    New J. Phys., 11, 103045, 1-18, (2009) [PDF, 3810 kB]


  • M. Beigmohamadi, P. Niyamakom, A. Farahzadi, S. Kremers, T. Michely and M. Wuttig
    Evolution of dislocations in perylene films with thickness and deposition rate
    Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 2, 1-3, (2008)
  • J. Coraux, A. T. N'Diaye, C. Busse and T. Michely
    Structural coherency of graphene on Ir(111)
    Nano Lett., 8, 565, 1-6, (2008)
  • A. T. N’Diaye, J. Coraux, T. N. Plasa, C. Busse and T. Michely
    Structure of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111)
    New J. Phys., 10, 043033, 1-16, (2008)
  • S. Bleikamp, A. Thoma, C. Polop and T. Michely
    Stacking faults in homoepitaxy on Ir(111) : detection, evolution with film thickness and associated defect structures
    Phys. Rev. B, 77, 245424/1-10, (2008)
  • A. Redinger, Y. Rosandi, H. M. Urbassek and T. Michely
    Step edge sputtering through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations
    Phys. Rev. B, 77, 195436/1-12, (2008)
  • A. Redinger, O. Ricken, P. Kuhn, A. Rätz, A. Voigt, J. Krug and T. Michely
    Spiral growth and step edge barriers
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 035506/1-4, (2008)


  • C. Polop, C. Rosiepen, S. Bleikamp, R. Drese, J. Mayer, A. Dimiyati and T. Michely
    The STM view of the initial stages of the morphological evolution of polycrystalline Ag films
    New J. Phys., 9, 74, 1-19, (2007)


  • A. N’Diaye, S. Bleikamp, P. J. Feibelman and T. Michely
    Two Dimensional Ir-Cluster Lattices on Moire of Graphene with Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 215501, 1-4, (2006)
  • H. Hansen, A. Redinger, S. Messlinger, G. Stoian, Y. Rosandi, H. M. Urbassek, U. Linke and T. Michely
    Mechanisms of pattern formation in grazing-incidence ion bombardment of Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 73, 235414, 1-14, (2006)
  • S. Bleikamp, A. Thoma, C. Polop, G. Pirug, U. Linke and T. Michely
    New Growth Mode through Decorated Twin Boundaries
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 115503, 1-4, (2006)
  • A. redinger, H. Hansen, U. Linke, Y. Rosandi, H.M. Urbassek and T. Michely
    Superior regularity in erosion patterns by planar susurface channelling
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 106103, 1-4, (2006)


  • C. Polop, H. Hansen, W. Langenkamp, Z. Zhong, C. Busse, U. Linke, M. Kotrla, P. J. Feibelman and T. Michely
    Oscillatory interaction between O impurities and Al adatoms on Al(111) and its effect on nucleation and growth
    Surf. Sci., 575, 89-102, (2005)
  • C. Polop, A. Lammerschop, C. Busse and T. Michely
    Dependence of stacking-fault nucleation on cluster mobility
    Phys. Rev. B, 71, 125423, 1-8, (2005)
  • O. Biham, J. Krug, A. Lipshtat and T. Michely
    Reaction kinetics in a tight spot
    Z. Phys. B, 502-504, (2005)
  • M. Müller, K. Albe, C. Busse, A. Thoma and T. Michely
    sland shapes, island densities, and stacking-fault formation on Ir(111): Kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations and experiments
    Phys. Rev. B, 71, 075407/1-8, (2005)



  • C. Busse, C. Polop, M. Müller, K. Albe, U. Linke and T. Michely
    Stacking-Fault Nucleation on Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 91, 56103, 1-4, (2003)
  • C. Polop, H. Hansen, C. Busse and T. Michely
    Relevance of nonlocal adatom-adatom interactions in homoepitaxial growth
    Phys. Rev. B, 67, 193405, 1-4, (2003)
  • C. Busse, W. Langenkamp, C. Polop, A. Petersen, H. Hansen, U. Linke, P. Feibelman and T. Michely
    Dimer binding energies on fcc(111) metal surfaces
    Surf. Sci., 539, L560-L566, (2003)
  • C. Busse, S. Baud, G. Bihlmayer, C. Polop, T. Michely and S. Blügel
    Tunneling voltage dependent heights of faulted and unfaulted Ir islands on Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 68, 201401, 1-4, (2003)
  • A. Petersen, C. Busse, C. Polop, U. Linke and T. Michely
    From erosion to bomardment induced growth on Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 68, 34541, 1-9, (2003)



  • T. Michely, W. Langenkamp, H. Hansen and C. Busse
    Comment on Dynamics of surface migration in the weak corrugation regime
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 2695, (2001)
  • C. Busse, C. Engin, H. Hansen, U. Linke, T. Michely and H. M. Urbassek
    Adatom formation and atomic layer growth on Al(111) by ion bombardment: Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations
    Surf. Sci., 488, 346-366, (2001)
  • P. J. Feibelman and T. Michely
    Pt-dimer dissociation on Pt(111)
    Surf. Sci., 492, L723-L728, (2001)
  • M. Strobel, K.-H. Heinig and T. Michely
    Three-dimensional kinetic lattice Monte-Carlo simulation of ion erosion of fcc(111) surfaces
    NIMB, 178, 105-108, (2001)
  • M. Kalff, G. Comsa and T. Michely
    Temperature dependent morphological evolution of Pt(111) by ion erosion: Destabilization, phase coexistence and coarsening
    Surf. Sci., 486, 103-135, (2001)
  • T. Michely, M. Kalff, G. Comsa, M. Strobel and K.-H. Heinig:
    Step edge diffusion and step atom detachment in surface evolution: Ion erosion of Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 2589-2592, (2001)
  • M. Strobel, K.-H. Heinig and T. Michely
    Mechanisms of pit coarsening in ion erosion of fcc(111) surfaces: A kinetic 3D lattice Monte-Carlo study
    Surf. Sci., 486, 136-156, (2001)



  • M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Collective effects in adatom production by 4.5 keV rare gas impacts on Pt(111) - a low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy analysis
    Phys. Met. Metallogr., 79, 775-794, (1999)
  • M. Kalff, P. Smilauer, G. Comsa and T. Michely
    No coarsening in homoepitaxy on Pt(111)
    Surf. Sci., 426, L447-L453, (1999)
  • T. Michely, G. X. Ye, V. Weidenhof and M. Wuttig
    Ag-deposition on oil - cluster nucleation, growth and aggregation on a liquid surface
    Surf. Sci., 432, 228-238, (1999)


  • T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Twodimensional Island Shapes in "Morphological Organisations in Epitaxial Growth and Removal
    Synchrotron Radiation News, 265-307, (1998)
  • G. X. Ye, T. Michely, V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich and M. Wuttig
    Nucleation, growth and aggregation of Ag-clusters on liquid surfaces
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 622-626, (1998)
  • M. Kalff, G. Comsa and T. Michely
    How sensitive is epitaxial growth to adsorbates?
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 1255-1258, (1998)
  • M. Rost, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Comment on: Self diffusion and dynamic behavior of atoms at step edges of iridium surfaces
    Phys. Rev. B, 57, 1992-1994, (1998)
  • T. Michely, M. Kalff and G.Comsa
    The effect of depostion method on growth morpholgy - comparison of molecular beam epitaxy, ion beam assisted depostion and sputter deposition in "Mechanisums and Principles of Epitaxial Growth in Metallic Systems, hrsg. von L.T. Wille u.a.
    Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 528, 179-194, (1998)


  • M. Morgenstern, J. Müller, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    The ice bilayer on Pt(111): nucleation, structure and melting
    Z. Phys. B, 198, 43-72, (1997)
  • M. Breeman, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    The influence of enhanced nucleation on thin film growth
    Surf. Sci., 370, L193-L200, (1997)
  • T. Michely, M. Hohage and G. Comsa
    Instabilities and Kinetic Anisotropies as Determining Factors of Island Growth Shapes
    J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125-134, (1997)
  • M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    The onset of interstitial diffusion determined by STM
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 79, 1305-1308, (1997)
  • M. Kalff, M. Breeman, M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Effect of energetic particles on island formation in sputter deposition of Pt on Pt(111)
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 70, 182-184, (1997)


  • T. Michely, M. C. Reuter and R. M. Tromp
    Al on Si(111): Phase Diagram and Atomic Mechanisms
    Phys. Rev. B, 53, 4105-4108, (1996)
  • M. Bott, M. Hohage, M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    New Approach for Determination of Diffusion Parameters of Adatoms
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1304-1307, (1996)
  • M. Hohage, M. Bott, M. Morgenstern, Z. Zhang, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Atomic Processes in Low Temperature Pt-Dendrite Growth on Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 2366-2369, (1996)
  • M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Anisotropy in the Adsorption of H2O at Low Coordination Sites on Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 703-706, (1996)
  • S. Esch, M. Breeman, M. Morgenstern, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Nucleation and Morphology of Homoepitaxial Pt(111)-Films grown with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition
    Surf. Sci., 365, 187-204, (1996)
  • P. J. Feibelman, S. Esch and T. Michely
    O Binding Sites on Stepped Pt(111) Surfaces
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2257-2260, (1996)
  • T. Michely, M. Hohage, S. Esch and G. Comsa
    The effect of surface reconstruction on the growth mode in homoepitaxy
    Surf. Sci., 349, L89-L94, (1996)


  • S. Esch, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Nucleation of homoepitaxial films grown with ion assistance on Pt(111)
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 67, 3209-3211, (1995)
  • M. Bott, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Design Principles of a Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope
    Surf. Sci., 66, 4135-4139, (1995)
  • M. Hohage, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Pt(111) network reconstruction: structure, growth and decay
    Surf. Sci., 337, 249-267, (1995)
  • R. M. Tromp and T. Michely
    Atomic-layer titration of surface reactions
    Nature (London), 373, 499-501, (1995)


  • T. Michely, M. C. Reuter, M. Copel and R. M. Tromp
    Symmetry, Structure and Step Induced Ordering of the Si (001)-(2x3)Ag Surface
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 2095-2098, (1994)
  • Ch. Teichert, M. Hohage, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Nuclei of the Pt(111) Network Reconstruction created by Single Ion Impacts
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 1682-1685, (1994)
  • S. Esch, M. Hohage, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    The Origin of Oxygen Induced Layer-By-Layer Growth in Homoepitaxy on Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 518-521, (1994)
  • T. Michely and Ch. Teichert
    Adatom Yields, Sputtering Yields and Damage Patterns of Single Ion Impacts on Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 50, 11156-11166, (1994)


  • T. Michely und G. Comsa
    The Scanning Tunneling Microscope as a Means for the Investigation of Ion Bombardment Damage on Metals
    Surf. Sci., 82, 207-219, (1993)
  • T. Michely, M. Hohage, M. Bott and G. Comsa
    Inversion of Growth Speed Anisotropy in Two Dimensions
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 70, 3943-3946, (1993)
  • M. Bott, M. Hohage, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Reconstruction of Pt(111) induced by increased Gas Phase Chemical Potential
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 70, 1489-1492, (1993)


  • T. A. Land, T. Michely, R. J. Behm, J. C. Hemminger and G. Comsa
    Direct observation of Surface Reactions by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Ethylene -> Ethylidyne -> Carbon Particles -> Graphite on Pt(111)
    J. Chem Phys., 97, 6774-6783, (1992)
  • M. Bott, T. Michely and G. Comsa
    The homoepitaxial Growth of Pt(111) studied with STM
    Surf. Sci., 272, 161, (1992)
  • T. Michely, T. A. Land, U. Littmark and G. Comsa
    Morphological effects induced by the Formation of a Pt-Adatom lattice Gas on Pt(111)
    Surf. Sci., 272, 204-210, (1992)
  • T. A. Land, T. Michely, R. J. Behm, J. C. Hemminger and G. Comsa
    STM investigation of single layer graphite structures produced on Pt(111) by hydrocarbon decomposition
    Surf. Sci., 264, 261-270, (1992)


  • T. A. Land, T. Michely, R. J. Behm, J. C. Hemminger and G. Comsa
    STM Investigation of the Adsorption and Temperature Dependent Reactions of Ethylene on Pt(111)
    Appl. Phys. A, 53, 414-417, (1991)
  • T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Generation and Nucleation of Adatoms during Ion Bombardment of Pt(111)
    Phys. Rev. B, 44, 8411-8414, (1991)
  • T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Temperature Dependence of the Sputtering Morphology of Pt(111)
    Surf. Sci., 256, 217-226, (1991)
  • T. Michely and G. Comsa
    Sputtering damage in the Pt(111) surface by He+ ion bombardment
    Surf. Sci., 862-866, (1991)


  • T. Michely, K. H. Besocke and G. Comsa
    Observation of Sputtering Damage on Au(111)
    Surf. Sci., 230, L135-L139, (1990)


  • T. Michely, K. H. Besocke and M. Teske
    A combined scanning tunneling and field ion microscope
    J. Mater. Chem., 152, 77-83, (1988)



  • T. Michely
    Atomare Prozesse bei der Pt-Abscheidung auf Pt(111)
    Habilitationsschrift, (1996)



  • T. Michely
    Rastertunnelmikroskopuntersuchung der Morphologie von Pt(111) nach Ionenbeschuß
    PhD thesis, Forschungszentrum Jülich, (1991)

Popular Scientific Publications

  1. C. Busse und Th. Michely:
    Kristalle falsch gestapelt
    Beitrag zum Buchprojekt "Visualisierung", Hrsg. M. Lohoff, eingereicht.


  2. H. Hansen, S. Meßlinger, Th. Michely und C. Polop:
    Nanostrukturierung von Oberflächen durch Ionenstrahlen
    RWTH Themen 1/2004 (2004) 18-19


  3. Th. Michely:
    Atomare Prozesse und Strukturbildung beim Schichtwachstum
    RWTH Themen 1/2001 (2001) 56-61


  4. Th. Michely, M. Kalff, J. Krug und P. Politi Hochzeitstorten und Zipfelmützen: Strukturbildung auf Pt(111)
    Physikalische Blätter 53/11 (1999), 53


  5. Th. Michely:
    Wassermoleküle erstmals direkt abgebildet
    Chemie in unserer Zeit 31/3 (1997) 147


  6. Th. Michely, G. Comsa:
    Zweidimensionale Gleichgewichtsformen durch Ionenbeschuß
    Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Mai 1994, 20-29   (link to article)


  7. Th. Michely:
    Zweidimensionale Gleichgewichtsformen durch Zerstäubung
    Physik in unserer Zeit 24/5 (1993) 212-216


  8. G. Comsa, M. Rott, R. Kunkel, Th. Michely, B. Poelsema:
    Mikroskopische Aspekte des Schichtwachstums
    Jahresbericht des Forschungszentrums Jülich (1992) 17-23


[Translate to Englisch:]

  1. Th. Michely:
    Anordnung zum In-Situ Ausglühen von Emissions- oder Tunnelspitzen
    Rollennr. 90057786.4, Bekanntmachung im Patentblatt am 11. 10. 1990


  2. Th. Michely, M. Rost, M. Kaiser:
    Nr. DE 199 35 570.3 C2, Anmeldetag 30. 7. 1999, Veröffentlichung 5. 7. 2001


  3. Th. Michely, M. Rost, M. Kaiser:
    Micromanipulator with piezoelectric movable elements
    Patent No.: US6,603,239 B1, Date of Patent: 5. 8. 2003