skip to content

Clusters and Graphene

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image of graphene on Ir(111)

Epitaxial growth of graphene is the most suitable method to grow a large, well ordered and almost defect-free layer of graphene. In our group we use chemical vapor deposition by hydrocarbons (e.g. ethylene - C2H4) on transition metal elements (most prominently Iridium) to grow exactly one layer of graphene.


Graphene on Ir(111) is an ideal template for the gowth of extended, well ordered metal cluster lattices. The clusters can be very small (less than 10 atoms) with a narrow size distribution. The graphene acts as an active templated, i.e. it transforms during the adsoprtion of the clusters from a graphene-like sp2 hybridized sheet to a diamond-like sp3-hybridized patch underneath the clusters. In addition, one can expect that the clusters can exchange electrons through the graphene, possibly also without loosing the spin orientation due to the outstanding transport properties of graphene. The method is rather versatile, up to now clusters of Ir, Pt, W, Rh, Au, and Fe haven been grown.




  • D. Subramaniam, F. Libisch, C. Pauly, V. Geringer, R. Reiter, T. Mashoff, M. Liebmann, J. Burgdörfer, C. Busse, T. Michely, M. Pratzer and M. Morgenstern
    Wave function mapping in graphene quantum dots
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, 046801, (2012)
  • H. Hattab, A. T. N'Diaye, D. Wall, C. Klein, G. Jnawali, J. Coraux, C. Busse, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema, T. Michely, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf and M. Horn-von Hoegen
    Interplay of wrinkles, strain, and lattice parameter in graphene layers on iridium
    Nano Lett., 12, 678, (2012)
  • C. Herbig, M. Kaiser, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, S. Schumacher, D. F. Förster, K. Meerholz, T. Michely and C. Busse
    Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalation
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 24, 314208, (2012)


  • H. Hattab, A. T. N'Diaye, D. Wall, G. Jnawali, J. Coraux, C. Busse, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema, T. Michely, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf and M. Horn-von Hoegen
    Growth temperature dependent graphene alignement on Ir(111)
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 141903, 141903, (2011)
  • C. Busse, P. Lazic, R. Djemour, J. Coraux, T. Gerber, N. Atodiresei, V. Caciuc, R. Brako, A. T. N'Diaye, S. Blügel, J. Zegenhagen and T. Michely
    Graphene on Ir(111): Physisorption with chemical modulation
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 107, 036101, 1-4, (2011)
  • M. Kralj, I. Pletikosić, M. Petrović, P. Pervan, M. Milun, A. T. N’Diaye, C. Busse, T. Michely, J. Fujii and I. Vobornik
    Graphene on Ir(111) characterized by angle-resolved photoemission
    Phys. Rev. B, 84, 075427, 1-8, (2011)


  • I. Pletikosić, M. Kralj, P. Pervan, R. Brako, J. Coraux, A. T. N’Diaye C. Busse and T. Michly
    Dirac cones and mini gaps for C/Ir(111)
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 056808, 1-4, (2009) [PDF, 1365 kB]
  • J. Coraux, A. T. N'Diaye, M. Engler, C. Busse, D. Wall, N. Buckanie, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, R. van Gastel, B. Poelsema and T. Michely
    Growth of graphene on Ir(111)
    New J. Phys., 11, 023006, 1-22, (2009)
  • A. T. N'Diaye, R. van Gastel, A. J. Martinez-Galera, J. Coraux, H. Hattab, D. Wall F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, M. Horn-von Hoegen, J. M. Gomez-Rodriguez, B. Poelsema, C. Busse and T. Michely
    In situ observation of stress relaxation in graphene
    New J. Phys., 11, 113056, 1-14, (2009) [PDF, 350 kB]
  • A. T. N'Diaye, T. Gerber, C. Busse, J. Mysliveček, J. Coraux and T. Michely
    A versatile fabrication method for cluster superlattices
    New J. Phys., 11, 103045, 1-18, (2009) [PDF, 3810 kB]